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Textile basics, save them for emergency use!

Textile basics, save them for emergency use! Basic knowledge of textiles, save it for emergency use! Textile basics Chapter 1 Basic knowledge of fabrics 1. Unit conversion: 1 yard (Y) = 0.9144 meters (M) 1 inch…

Textile basics, save them for emergency use!

Basic knowledge of textiles, save it for emergency use!

Textile basics

Chapter 1 Basic knowledge of fabrics

1. Unit conversion: 1 yard (Y) = 0.9144 meters (M) 1 inch (1″) = 2.54 centimeters (CM) 1 yard = 36 inches 1 pound (LB) = 454 grams (g) 1 ounce = (OZ) =28.3 grams (g)

2. Definition of fabric specification parameters:

1. Denier number: indicates the thickness of long-fiber yarn, that is, a yarn with a length of 9,000 meters has a weight of 1 gram (g), which is usually defined as 1 denier and is represented by the English letter “D”. For example: a 9,000-meter-long yarn weighs 70 grams, which is defined as 70 denier. Mainly used to indicate the thickness of chemical fiber.

2. Number of threads and warp and weft density: Indicates the density of the fabric, that is, the sum of the number of warp threads and weft threads per square inch, represented by the English letter “T”. When counting strips, pay attention to analyzing the weaving method of the fabric and find out the corresponding weaving rules, so that you can accurately measure the number of strips.

3. F number: Each warp or weft yarn is composed of several spun yarns. The F number represents the number of spun yarns in a warp or weft yarn, represented by the English letter “F”. Generally speaking, “F number” The larger it is, the fluffier and softer the fabric will feel. On the contrary, the thinner and harder it feels.

4. The thickness of staple fiber yarn is expressed by “count yarn” under normal circumstances. That is, the length of yarn poked out of 1 pound of cotton is 840 yards. This yarn is called 1 count yarn and is represented by the English letter “s”. , such as 21 count yarn is 21s. It is mainly used to indicate the thickness of cotton, linen, tencel, blended fibers and chemical fiber short fibers. (Converted: 21S is equivalent to the weight of 250D)

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3. Fabric classification:

1. Classification by nature (common classifications are as follows)

Fibers can be divided into two categories: natural fibers and man-made fibers according to their properties. Among them, natural fibers include silk cotton, linen, wool, etc., and man-made fibers include nylon, polyester, acetate, etc. The following is a detailed introduction to several more commonly used fibers:

A. Nylon: English is “Nylon”, generally represented by “N”, also called “nylon”. Nylon is divided into “nylon 6” and “nylon 66”. The various physical properties of “Nylon 66” are better than those of “Nylon 6”, and the price is also more expensive. Under normal circumstances, white smoke is emitted when burning, and it smells like mustard. Usually dyed with acid dyes.

B. Polyester: “Polyester” in English, usually represented by “T”. Under normal circumstances, black smoke is emitted when burning with fire (but it should also be noted that nylon coated with glue will also turn into black smoke after burning due to the glue, so pay attention to the identification), it burns faster and smells smellier. smell. Disperse dyes are usually used for dyeing, and attention should be paid to dye migration and sublimation fastness issues.

C. Cotton: English is “Cotton”, generally expressed by “C”. Under normal circumstances, when burning with fire, the burning speed is slow, the flame is yellow, and the smell of burning cotton is familiar to everyone. The ash after burning of natural cotton is white, while most of the ash after burning of artificial cotton is black, but the taste is similar. Usually dyed with reactive dyes or direct dyes.

D. Interwoven types such as: nylon and polyester interwoven (N/T), polyester and nylon interwoven (T/N), nylon and cotton interwoven (N/C), cotton and nylon interwoven (C/N), polyester and cotton interwoven (T/C) , cotton-polyester interwoven (C/T) and other fiber interwoven types. The setting of the name of interwoven fabrics is based on the principle of “the name of the warp fiber comes first and the name of the weft fiber comes last”. For example, “N/C” means “the warp is nylon and the weft is cotton”, and “C/N” means “the warp is nylon and the weft is cotton”. “The warp is cotton and the weft is nylon.” And so on for the rest.

E. In addition, there are acetate fiber, wool, hemp silk and other fibers, as well as blended ones, and Tencel fiber (English Tencel, viscose fiber made from leaves).

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2. Classification according to weaving method:

According to the weaving method, it is divided into woven fabrics, knitted fabrics and non-woven fabrics, which can be subdivided as follows:

A. Knitted fabrics: generally include circular knitted fabrics and warp knitted fabrics

B. Woven fabric: The fabric is made of interlaced warp and weft yarns. According to the different ways of interweaving warp and weft, it can be divided into plain weave (Taffeta), twill weave (Twill), satin weave (Sattin) and jacquard (Dobby). (Note: plain weave, twill weave and satin weave are ” “Three original weaves”), and at the same time, the warp or weft yarns are plied to form various patterns. In short, there are many types and changes, and they must be studied and experienced one by one in practical work.

C. Non-woven fabric: not woven, made of fibers directly bonded and pressed.

3. According to the manufacturing method of yarn, it can be divided into:

A. FDY (filament yarn or raw yarn), DTY (low elastic yarn), ATY (air-transformed yarn). Products woven by FDY include nylon, polyester, FDY Oxford and other fabrics; products woven by DTY include pongee, peach skin, low-elastic Oxford cloth, etc.; ATY is mainly used for weaving Taslan cloth. There are also styles that combine the above types of knitting to produce various effects.
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②Soft styling makes the fabric feel soft and smooth, but pay attention to whether the fabric will slip. Water repellency and soft styling can be done at the same time to make the fabric both waterproof and soft, but the softener will affect the degree of water repellency.

③Resin setting is mainly used to fix the yarn of the fabric and make the hand feel stiff. Some resins contain formaldehyde, so pay attention to the selection; water splashing and resin setting can be done at the same time, and the resin can promote the water splashing agent.

④ Flame retardant styling has an auxiliary effect on the flame retardant function of the fabric. Flame retardant can also be water-repellent styling at the same time, but special attention should be paid to the selection of water-repellent agent, otherwise the flame retardant effect will be too great.

⑤ Anti-static styling makes the fabric anti-static and can be done at the same time as water-splashing styling, but it will have an impact on the water-splashing effect.

⑥ Moisture wicking and shaping allows the fabric to quickly absorb sweat, making sportswear more comfortable. It cannot be done at the same time as splashing water.

⑦ Antibacterial and deodorizing processing mainly makes fabrics have antibacterial functions and is mainly used in medical facilities.

⑧Super water-repellent styling (also called Teflon treatment): It has better waterproof and dust-proof effects than ordinary water-repellent styling, and it also has oil-proof function. Generally speaking, customers will ask for a DuPont hangtag.

7. Calendering and gluing:

A. The functions of calendering: ① Soften the feel ② Make the calendered surface of the fabric smoother, narrow the gaps between fabric fibers to prevent lint, or achieve higher water pressure when gluing ③ Make the gluing surface smoother Beautiful ④The calendered surface has a bright effect. B. The three elements of calendering are temperature, speed and pressure. Calendering changes the color of the fabric. C. Gluing can make the fabric waterproof, velvet-proof, windproof, etc. It can also fix the fabric, increase the look and feel, and thicken the feel, making the fabric more valuable. D. Gluing includes acrylic (also known as AC, PA), PU glue, moisture-permeable and breathable glue, which can be processed into transparent glue, white glue, silver glue, colored glue, pearlescent glue, excellent glue, etc. Corresponding raw materials can also be added to the glue to make it anti-ultraviolet, flame retardant, and anti-yellowing.

E. When applying glue, pay attention to controlling the water pressure, feel (thickness, softness and hardness), glue application uniformity, glue peeling strength, water washing resistance (whitening), whiteness, etc. Also pay attention to the rubber particles, glue marks, and whether it is dry on the rubber surface. Pay attention to the effect of applying waterstop strips (PVC strips/PU strips) on the rubber surface.

8. Laminating PVC: Pay attention to the thickness and feel of the lamination, the peel strength of the lamination, the quality of the adhesive surface, etc.

9. Other processing: dry PU (release paper), composite, PU leather, etc.

10. Washing: Some cotton, N/C, and T/C also need to go through a washing process. There are three types of washing: ordinary washing, soft washing, and enzyme washing (to remove floating hair on the surface of cotton cloth).

11. Finished product inspection: Inspect the quality of finished products, classify them into grades, and package them for shipment. Generally, inspection records and discrepancy sheets must be affixed. If you have any questions, please report them to the salesperson promptly so that you can communicate with customers in a timely manner.

Chapter 3 Quality Focus of Fabrics

1. Width: Generally refers to the effective width, that is, the width within the pinhole, or the effective width after gluing.

2. Longitude and latitude density: When there are strict requirements, be sure to measure the latitude and longitude density.

3. Weft camber: Generally, the weft camber of plaid fabrics should not be greater than 3%, and the weft camber of plain fabrics should not be greater than 5%.

4. Shrinkage: The shrinkage in the warp and weft directions of the finished product after washing.

5. Water repellency: ISO is measured in degrees (50 degrees bad to 100 degrees good), or AATCC levels (1 bad to 5 good). AATCC level 3 is equivalent to ISO’s 80 degrees.

6. Color fastness: This is a very important indicator, which includes washing fastness (fastness to color fading and staining), water fastness (fastness to color fading and staining), and sun fastness (fastness to color fading and staining). ), rubbing fastness (fading, staining), perspiration fastness (fading, staining), sublimation fastness, dye migration, etc., measured by level (level 1 is poor to level 5 is good).

7. Strength: tensile strength, tear strength, bursting strength (kg/cm2).

8. Water pressure resistance: The strength (waterproof degree) of the cloth against water pressure, such as 2000mm/H2O (millimeters of water column). The higher the value, the better the waterproof performance.

9. Moisture permeability: The unit is g/M2*Day, which indicates the mass of water passing through 1 square meter of fabric in 24 hours under a certain temperature and humidity.

10. Oil splashing degree: a test indicator used for Teflon processed fabrics, divided into 5 levels (level 1 is poor to level 5 is good).

11. In addition, there are tests on flame retardant performance, antistatic, anti-ultraviolet and other characteristics. These require professional institutions to test, so I will not go into details here.

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Author: clsrich

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